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Tuesday, January 15, 2013


Our planet is known as the "Blue Planet" although we could call the "Water Plane
t" by the amount of water (75% of the total) in it, but unfortunately only a sma
ll part of this you can drink, is drinking water (only 3% of total water), most
of it is salt water (97%).
Water harvesting is the capture and storage of water for
beneficial reuse. It can be accomplished anywhere a water
supply is available for collection-and a water source is desired
or required.
Rainwater harvesting is the capture and storage of rainwater and is
considered the cleanest form of harvested water.
Greywater harvesting is the capture and storage of water that has
already been used for non-sewage purposes-from baths and showers
to washing machines, sinks, and vehicle washing run-off

water shortages are a serious threat to our
economy and way of life.
This is why water conservation and water efficiency has become intrinsic to water
planning in both rural and urban settings

Water efficiency has many benefits in
manufacturing facilities
There are a number of water-efficiency
actions that can easily be incorporated into
manufacturing facilities. Equipment and
practices that use less water or recycle water
through capture and reuse can be introduced
to existing manufacturing processes. Other
strategies for conserving water can be implemented
throughout the building, such as
low-flow fixtures and automatic controls in
lavatories. In situations where high-quality
water is unnecessary (toilet flushing, janitorial
tasks, irrigation and building systems), water
collection systems or graywater can be used.
Install closed-loop systems that reuse water
over and over again.
• Develop systems that treat industrial wastewater
that can then be reused in the manufacturing,
building or irrigation systems.
• Consider ways to simultaneously improve
water and energy efficiency, particularly
through recycling or heat recovery from
warm water.
Building Systems
• Install water-efficient plumbing fixtures
that, at a minimum,
Use graywater collected from showers,
sinks and lavatories for use in water closets.
• Install waterless urinals in male restrooms.
• Use automatic faucets with sensors in
high-use public areas where faucets might
otherwise be left running.
• Use onsite treated wastewater for
sewage conveyance
Grounds Irrigation
• Feed irrigation systems with captured rainwater,
appropriate graywater or onsite
treated water.
• Landscape with native or adaptive plants
that do not require additional water inputs
to survive in local climate conditions.
• Use high-efficiency irrigation technologies,
including micro-irrigation, moisture
sensors or weather data-based controllers

Water as human right: the concept
For human development access to sufficient water regarding quality, quantity and economy is vital.
With population growths in many parts of the world, especially in urban areas, freshwater resources are affected by increasing pollution and overuse of existing natural resources resulting in a growing scarcity in quality and quantity of water. A raising competition among the different users and uses of water is the consequence.
The human right approach to water puts the peoples need first regarding water use and promotes human-centred water resource development based on a coherent framework of binding legal norms and accountability
Economic impacts:
With increased demand, the country’s financial resources were exhausted in developing an infrastructure for water collection, transfer and treatment infrastructure. The country is now full of water collection and transfer pipes moving groundwater from distant locations for domestic use in big cities and human settlements. Such investments in infrastructure increased the real cost of water delivery
Social impacts:
The social impact of water scarcity has been most notably documented in the agricultural sector. Most of the rural communities in Jordan depend on agriculture as a main source of income. The reduction of water supply, coupled with unsustainable agricultural practices, resulted in less water available for small farms and low-middle income farmers.
make the judicious use of water resources we should follow the
following steps:
1. On Farm Water Management: It has been experienced that the over
all efficiency of the irrigation systems on the farmer’s field varies from
30 to 40% which can be increased to 60 to 70 % by adopting efficient
water management strategies.
a) Precision land leveling: Benefits of Laser leveling are
i) More level and smooth surface.
ii) Reduction in time and water required to irrigate the field.
iii) More uniform distribution of water in the field.
iv) More uniform moisture environment of the crops.
v) More uniform germination and growth of crops.
vi) Improved field traffic ability.
b) Irrigation scheduling: Irrigation scheduling of crops is an important
component of water saving technologies.
c) Improving the conveyance efficiency: By installing Under
Ground Pipe Line system 3-4% of land can be saved which can be
brought under cultivation.
d) Improved irrigation methods
i) Furrow Irrigated Raised Beds: Irrigation is applied through
furrows between the beds. About 30-40% of water is saved in
this method.
ii)Furrow Irrigation method in wide row crops: Crops like
maize, cotton, Sun-flower, Sugar-cane and vegetables should
be grown on ridges and water should be applied through
e) Micro Irrigation: Drip and sprinkler irrigation systems can be
used to save water.
f) Mulching: Application of straw mulch improves the water use
efficiency. It reduces the evaporation losses from the soil surface.
Mulching keeps the weeds down and improves the soil structure and
eventually increases the crop yield.
2. Timely Transplanting: Proper time of transplanting rice is the month of June. It
is worth mentioning that early transplanting of rice results in wastage of water equivalent
to 10 irrigations beside loss of 37 % energy in terms of electric consumption (440
3. Suitable Varieties: Timely or late sown short duration varieties of
crops should be encouraged over early and long duration varieties to
reduce evapo-transpiration losses.
4. Conjunctive use of water: At present 30% of total canal water
available at the outlet is utilized in the central Punjab comprising about
49%of the total geographical area of the state. As a result there is
excessive withdrawal of ground water to meet the irrigation demand of the
5.Crop diversification: Replacing one million hectare area under rice with
pulses can save 0.2 million hectare meter of water.
6.Artificial recharge of Under Ground water: Various techniques being
adopted to recharge the ground water in Punjab are:
a) Roof Top Water Harvesting
b) Recharge from Village Ponds
c) Recharge in Kandi Area

• 3.575 million people die each year from water-related disease. (10)
• 43% of water-related deaths are due to diarrhea. (10)
• 84% of water-related deaths are in children ages 0 – 14. (10)
• 98% of water-related deaths occur in the developing world. (10)
• 884 million people, lack access to safe water supplies, approximately on
e in eight people. (5)
• The water and sanitation crisis claims more lives through disease than a
ny war claims through guns. (1)
• At any given time, half of the world’s hospital beds are occupied by pat
ients suffering from a water-related disease. (1)
• Less than 1% of the world’s fresh water (or about 0.007% of all water on
earth) is readily accessible for direct human use. (11)
• An American taking a five-minute shower uses more water than the typical
person living in a developing country slum uses in a whole day. (1)
• About a third of people without access to an improved water source live
on less than $1 a day. More than two thirds of people without an improved water
source live on less than $2 a day. (1)
• Poor people living in the slums often pay 5-10 times more per liter of w
ater than wealthy people living in the same city. (1)
• Without food a person can live for weeks, but without water you can expe
ct to live only a few days. (4)
• The daily requirement for sanitation, bathing, and cooking needs, as wel
l as for assuring survival, is about 13.2 gallons per person. (3)
• Only 62% of the world’s population has access to improved sanitation – d
efined as a sanitation facility that ensures hygienic separation of human excret
a from human contact. (5)
• 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation, including 1.2 bil
lion people who have no facilities at all. (5)
• The majority of the illness in the world is caused by fecal matter.(9)
• Lack of sanitation is the world’s biggest cause of infection. (9)
• At any one time, more than half of the poor in the developing world are
ill from causes related to hygiene, sanitation and water supply. (9)
• 88% of cases of diarrhea worldwide are attributable to unsafe water, ina
dequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene. (9)
• Of the 60 million people added to the world’s towns and cities every yea
r, most occupy impoverished slums and shanty-towns with no sanitation facilities
. (8)
• It is estimated that improved sanitation facilities could reduce diarrhe
a-related deaths in young children by more than one-third. If hygiene promotion
is added, such as teaching proper hand washing, deaths could be reduced by two t
hirds. It would also help accelerate economic and social development in countrie
s where sanitation is a major cause of lost work and school days because of illn
ess. (6)
Impacts on Children
• Every 20 seconds, a child dies from a water-related disease. (2)
• Children in poor environments often carry 1,000 parasitic worms in their
bodies at any time. (8)
• 1.4 million children die as a result of diarrhea each year. (10)
• 90% of all deaths caused by diarrheal diseases are children under 5 year
s of age, mostly in developing countries. (
Impacts on Productivity
• On average, every US dollar invested in water and sanitation provides an
economic return of eight US dollars. (1)
• An investment of US$11.3 billion per year is needed to meet the drinking
water and sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goals, yielding a tot
al payback for US$ 84 billion a year. (10)
• Other estimated economic benefits of investing in drinking-water and san
itation (10) :
o 272 million school attendance days a year
o 1.5 billion healthy days for children under five years of age
o Values of deaths averted, based on discounted future earnings, amounting
to US$ 3.6 billion a year
o Health-care savings of US$ 7 billion a year for health agencies and US$
340 million for individuals
What Can You Do?
Join us was we combat the water crisis and work for the day when everyone in the
world can take a safe drink of water.
100 Ways To Conserve
There are a number of ways to save water, and they all start with you.
• #2
When washing dishes by hand, don 􀀀t let the water run while rinsing. Fill one sin
k with wash water and the other with rinse water.
• #3
Some refrigerators, air conditioners and ice-makers are cooled with wasted flows
of water. Consider upgrading with air-cooled appliances for significant water s
• #4
Adjust sprinklers so only your lawn is watered and not the house, sidewalk, or s
• #5
Run your clothes washer and dishwasher only when they are full. You can save up
to 1,000 gallons a month.
• #6
Choose shrubs and groundcovers instead of turf for hard-to-water areas such as s
teep slopes and isolated strips.
• #7
Install covers on pools and spas and check for leaks around your pumps.
• #8
Use the garbage disposal sparingly. Compost vegetable food waste instead and sav
e gallons every time.
• #9
Plant in the fall when conditions are cooler and rainfall is more plentiful.
For cold drinks keep a pitcher of water in the refrigerator instead of running t
he tap. This way, every drop goes down you and not the drain.
• #11
Monitor your water bill for unusually high use. Your bill and water meter are to
ols that can help you discover leaks.
• #12
Water your lawn and garden in the morning or evening when temperatures are coole
r to minimize evaporation.
• #13
Wash your fruits and vegetables in a pan of water instead of running water from
the tap.
• #14
Spreading a layer of organic mulch around plants retains moisture and saves wate
r, time and money.
• #15
Use a broom instead of a hose to clean your driveway and sidewalk and save water
every time.
• #16
If your shower fills a one-gallon bucket in less than 20 seconds, replace the sh
owerhead with a water-efficient model.
• #17
Collect the water you use for rinsing fruits and vegetables, then reuse it to wa
ter houseplants.
• #18
If water runs off your lawn easily, split your watering time into shorter period
s to allow for better absorption.
• #19
We 􀀀re more likely to notice leaks indoors, but don 􀀀t forget to check outdoor fau
cets, sprinklers and hoses for leaks.
• #20
If you have an automatic refilling device, check your pool periodically for leak
• #21
Check the root zone of your lawn or garden for moisture before watering using a
spade or trowel. If it 􀀀s still moist two inches under the soil surface, you stil
l have enough water.
• #22
When buying new appliances, consider those that offer cycle and load size adjust
ments. They 􀀀re more water and energy efficient.
• #23
Shorten your shower by a minute or two and you 􀀀ll save up to 150 gallons per mon
• #24
Upgrade older toilets with water efficient models.
• #25
Adjust your lawn mower to a higher setting. A taller lawn shades roots and holds
soil moisture better than if it is closely clipped.
• #26
When cleaning out fish tanks, give the nutrient-rich water to your plants.
• #27
Use sprinklers for large areas of grass. Water small patches by hand to avoid wa
Put food coloring in your toilet tank. If it seeps into the toilet bowl without
flushing, you have a leak. Fixing it can save up to 1,000 gallons a month.
• #29
When running a bath, plug the tub before turning the water on, then adjust the t
emperature as the tub fills up.
• #30
Walkways and patios provide space that doesn 􀀀t ever need to be watered. These us
eful "rooms" can also add value to your property.
• #31
Collect water from your roof to water your garden.
• #32
Designate one glass for your drinking water each day or refill a water bottle. T
his will cut down on the number of glasses to wash.
• #33
Rather than following a set watering schedule, check for soil moisture two to th
ree inches below the surface before watering.
• #34
Install a rain sensor on your irrigation controller so your system won 􀀀t run whe
n it 􀀀s raining.
• #35
Don 􀀀t use running water to thaw food. Defrost food in the refrigerator for water
efficiency and food safety.
Use drip irrigation for shrubs and trees to apply water directly to the roots wh
ere it 􀀀s needed.
• #37
Grab a wrench and fix that leaky faucet. It 􀀀s simple, inexpensive, and you can s
ave 140 gallons a week.
• #38
Reduce the amount of lawn in your yard by planting shrubs and ground covers appr
opriate to your site and region.
• #39
When doing laundry, match the water level to the size of the load.
• #40
Teach your children to turn off faucets tightly after each use.
• #41
Remember to check your sprinkler system valves periodically for leaks and keep t
he sprinkler heads in good shape.
Use a water-efficient showerhead. They 􀀀re inexpensive, easy to install, and can
save you up to 750 gallons a month.
• #43
Soak pots and pans instead of letting the water run while you scrape them clean.
• #44
Don 􀀀t water your lawn on windy days when most of the water blows away or evapora
• #45
Water your plants deeply but less frequently to encourage deep root growth and d
rought tolerance.
• #46
Know where your master water shut-off valve is located. This could save water an
d prevent damage to your home.
• #47
To decrease water from being wasted on sloping lawns, apply water for five minut
es and then repeat two to three times.
• #48
Group plants with the same watering needs together to avoid overwatering some wh
ile underwatering others.
• #49
Use a layer of organic material on the surface of your planting beds to minimize
weed growth that competes for water.
• #50
Use a minimum amount of organic or slow release fertilizer to promote a healthy
and drought tolerant landscape.
• #51
Trickling or cascading fountains lose less water to evaporation than those spray
ing water into the air.
• #52
Use a commercial car wash that recycles water.
• #53
Avoid recreational water toys that require a constant flow of water.
• #54
Turn off the water while brushing your teeth and save 25 gallons a month.
• #55
Use a rain gauge, or empty tuna can, to track rainfall on your lawn. Then reduce
your watering accordingly.
• #56
Encourage your school system and local government to develop and promote water c
onservation among children and adults.
• #57
Learn how to shut off your automatic watering system in case it malfunctions or
you get an unexpected rain.
• #58
Set a kitchen timer when watering your lawn or garden to remind you when to stop
. A running hose can discharge up to 10 gallons a minute.
• #59
If your toilet flapper doesn 􀀀t close after flushing, replace it.
• #60
Make sure there are water-saving aerators on all of your faucets.
Next time you add or replace a flower or shrub, choose a low water use plant for
year-round landscape color and save up to 550 gallons each year.
• #62
Install an instant water heater near your kitchen sink so you don 􀀀t have to run
the water while it heats up. This also reduces energy costs.
• #63
Use a grease pencil to mark the water level of your pool at the skimmer. Check t
he mark 24 hours later to see if you have a leak.
• #64
If your dishwasher is new, cut back on rinsing. Newer models clean more thorough
ly than older ones.
• #65
Use a trowel, shovel, or soil probe to examine soil moisture depth. If the top t
wo to three inches of soil are dry it 􀀀s time to water.
• #66
If installing a lawn, select a turf mix or blend that matches your climate and s
ite conditions.
• #67
When you save water, you save money on your utility bills too. Saving water is e
asy for everyone to do.
• #68
When the kids want to cool off, use the sprinkler in an area where your lawn nee
ds it the most.
• #69
Make sure your swimming pools, fountains, and ponds are equipped with recirculat
ing pumps.
• #70
Bathe your young children together.
• #71
Consult with your local nursery for information on plant selection and placement
for optimum outdoor water savings.
• #72
Winterize outdoor spigots when temperatures dip below freezing to prevent pipes
from leaking or bursting.
• #73
Insulate hot water pipes for more immediate hot water at the faucet and for ener
gy savings.
• #74
Wash your car on the lawn, and you 􀀀ll water your lawn at the same time.
Drop your tissue in the trash instead of flushing it and save water every time.
• #76
Direct water from rain gutters and HVAC systems toward water-loving plants in th
e landscape for automatic water savings.
• #77
Make suggestions to your employer about ways to save water and money at work.
• #78
Support projects that use reclaimed wastewater for irrigation and industrial use
• #79
Use a hose nozzle or turn off the water while you wash your car. You 􀀀ll save up
to 100 gallons every time.
• #80
Share water conservation tips with friends and neighbors.
• #81
If your toilet was installed before 1992, reduce the amount of water used for ea
ch flush by inserting a displacement device in the tank.
• #82
Setting cooling systems and water softeners for a minimum number of refills save
s both water and chemicals, plus more on utility bills.
• #83
Washing dark clothes in cold water saves both on water and energy while it helps
your clothes to keep their colors.
• #84
Leave lower branches on trees and shrubs and allow leaf litter to accumulate on
the soil. This keeps the soil cooler and reduces evaporation.
• #85
Report broken pipes, open hydrants and errant sprinklers to the property owner o
r your water provider.
• #86
Let your lawn go dormant during the summer. Dormant grass only needs to be water
ed every three weeks or less if it rains.
• #87
Plant with finished compost to add water-holding and nutrient-rich organic matte
r to the soil.
• #88
Use sprinklers that deliver big drops of water close to the ground. Smaller wate
r drops and mist often evaporate before they hit the ground.
• #89
Listen for dripping faucets and running toilets. Fixing a leak can save 300 gall
ons a month or more.
• #90
Water only when necessary. More plants die from over-watering than from under-wa
• #91
One more way to get eight glasses of water a day is to re-use the water left ove
r from cooked or steamed foods to start a scrumptious and nutritious soup.
Adjust your watering schedule each month to match seasonal weather conditions an
d landscape requirements.
• #93
Turn off the water while you wash your hair to save up to 150 gallons a month.
• #94
Wash your pets outdoors in an area of your lawn that needs water.
• #95
When shopping for a new clothes washer, compare resource savings among Energy St
ar models. Some of these can save up to 20 gallons per load, and energy too.
• #96
Apply water only as fast as the soil can absorb it.
• #97
Aerate your lawn at least once a year so water can reach the roots rather than r
un off the surface.
• #98
When washing dishes by hand, fill the sink basin or a large container and rinse
when all of the dishes have been soaped and scrubbed.
• #99
Catch water in an empty tuna can to measure sprinkler output. One inch of water
on one square foot of grass equals two-thirds of a gallon of water.
• #100
Turn off the water while you shave and save up to 300 gallons a month.
• #101
When you give your pet fresh water, don 􀀀t throw the old water down the drain. Us
e it to water your trees or shrubs.
• #102
If you accidentally drop ice cubes when filling your glass from the freezer, don
􀀀t throw them in the sink. Drop them in a house plant instead.
• #103
To save water and time, consider washing your face or brushing your teeth while
in the shower.
• #104
While staying in a hotel or even at home, consider reusing your towels.
• #105
When backflushing your pool, consider using the water on your landscaping.
• #106
For hanging baskets, planters and pots, place ice cubes under the moss or dirt t
o give your plants a cool drink of water and help eliminate water overflow.
• #107
Throw trimmings and peelings from fruits and vegetables into your yard compost t
o prevent using the garbage disposal.
• #108
When you have ice left in your cup from a take-out restaurant, don 􀀀t throw it in
the trash, dump it on a plant.
• #109
Have your plumber re-route your gray water to trees and gardens rather than lett
ing it run into the sewer line. Check with your city codes, and if it isn 􀀀t allo
wed in your area, start a movement to get that changed.
• #110
Keep a bucket in the shower to catch water as it warms up or runs. Use this wate
r to flush toilets or water plants.
• #111
When you are washing your hands, don 􀀀t let the water run while you lather.

Water resources of India
Although India occupies only 3.29 million km2 geographical
area, which forms 2.4% of the world’s land area, it supports
over 15% of the world’s population. The population of
India as on 1 March 2001 stood at 1,027,015,247 persons.
Thus, India supports about 1/6th of world population, 1/50th
of world’s land and 1/25th of world’s water resources7.
India also has a livestock population of 500 million, which
is about 20% of the world’s total livestock population.
More than half of these are cattle, forming the backbone of
Indian agriculture. The total utilizable water resources of
the country are assessed as 1086 km3.
Rainwater harvesting
Rainwater harvesting is the process to capture and store
rainfall for its efficient utilization and conservation to
control its runoff, evaporation and seepage. Some of the
benefits of rainwater harvesting are:
·  It increases water availability
·  It checks the declining water table
·  It is environmentally friendly
·  It improves the quality of groundwater through dilution,
mainly of fluoride, nitrate, and salinity, and
·  It prevents soil erosion and flooding, especially in the
urban areas.

Man’s influence on hydrological cycle
The hydrological cycle is being modified quantitatively and
qualitatively in most of the river basins of our country as
a result of the developmental activities such as construction
of dams and reservoirs, land use change, irrigation, etc.
Such human activities affecting the hydrological regime can
be classified into four major groups: (i) activities which
affect river runoff by diverting water from rivers, lakes,
and reservoirs or by groundwater extraction, (ii) activities
modifying the river channels, e.g. construction of reservoirs
and ponds, levees and river training, channel dredging, etc.
(iii) activities due to which runoff and other water balance
components are modified due to impacts of basin surface
e.g. agricultural practices, drainage of swamps, afforestation
or deforestation, urbanization, etc. and (iv) activities
which may induce climate changes at regional or global scale,
e.g. modifying the composition of atmosphere by increasing
the ‘greenhouse’ gases or by increased evaporation
caused by large scale water projects.

Precipitation variability
The long-term average annual rainfall for the country is
1160 mm, which is the highest anywhere in the world for a
country of comparable size2. The annual rainfall in India
however fluctuates widely. The highest rainfall in India
of about 11,690 mm is recorded at Mousinram near Cherrapunji
in Meghalaya in the northeast5. In this region rainfall as
much as 1040 mm is recorded in a day. At the other extreme
are places like Jaisalmer, in the west, which receives barely
150 mm of rain. Though the average rainfall is adequate,
nearly three-quarters of the rain pours down in less than 120
days, from June to September. As much as 21% of the area
of the country receives less than 750 mm of rain annually
while 15% receives rainfall in excess of 1500 mm. Precipitation
generally exceeds 1000 mm in areas to the east of Longitude
In the past, several organizations and individuals have estimated
water availability for the nation. Recently, the National
Commission for Integrated Water Resources Development8
estimated the basin-wise average annual flow in
Indian river systems as 1953 km3. The details are given in
Table 1.
Utilizable water resource is the quantum of withdrawable
water from its place of natural occurrence. Within the limitations
of physiographic conditions and socio-political environment,
legal and constitutional constraints and the
technology of development available at present, utilizable
quantity of water from the surface flow has been assessed
by various authorities differently. The utilizable annual surface
water of the country is 690 km3

- My contention is that water is not just made of H2O it has an unknown element and many scientist across the globe too agree with this.

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