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Sunday, January 6, 2013

Micronutrient and Protein-Fortified Whole Grain Puffed Rice Made by Supercritical Fluid Extrusion

Micronutrient and Protein-Fortified Whole Grain Puffed Rice Made by Supercritical Fluid Extrusion

Ilankovan Paraman , Michael E. Wagner , and Syed S. H. Rizvi *
Institute of Food Science, Cornell University, 151 Stocking Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853-7201, United States
J. Agric. Food Chem., 2012, 60 (44), pp 11188–11194
DOI: 10.1021/jf3034804
Publication Date (Web): October 15, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society
*Tel: 607-255-7913. Fax: 607-255-7913. E-mail:

Supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX) was used to produce shelf-stable puffed rice fortified with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients. Product ingredients and process parameters were evaluated for end-product nutritional and textural qualities. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC–CO2) served as a viscosity-lowering plasticizer and blowing agent during the process, which has been shown to produce expanded products with good textural qualities at lower temperatures (100 °C) than conventional steam-based extrusion (130–180 °C). The fortified puffed rice contained 8% dietary fiber, 21.5% protein, and iron, zinc, and vitamins A and C at their recommended daily values in 100 g of product. The SCFX process allowed for the complete retention of all added minerals, 55–58% retention of vitamin A, and 64–76% retention of vitamin C. All essential amino acids including lysine were retained at exceptionally high levels (98.6%), and no losses were observed due to Maillard reaction or oxidation. All of the essential amino acid contents were equal to the reference protein recommended by FAO/WHO. Soy protein fortification improved the total amount of protein in the final rice products and provided a complementary amino acid profile to that of rice; the lysine content improved from 35 to 60 mg/protein, making the end product an excellent source of complete protein. Thus, SC–CO2-assisted extrusion is an effective process-based approach to produce cereal grain-based, low-moisture (5–8%) expanded products fortified with protein and any cocktail of micronutrients, without compromising the end-product sensory or nutritional qualities. These products are ideally suited for consumption as breakfast cereals, snack foods, and as part of nutrition bars for school lunch programs. The balanced nutritional profile and use of staple crop byproducts such as broken rice makes these expanded crisps unique to the marketplace.

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